What is the black pygmy genocide myth?

The black pygmy genocide myth has been used in Australia, Taiwan, and New Zealand to dispossess indigenous people. These three videos explain and debunk this weird historical fiction.

Aboriginal History WA. Norman Tindale Collection: Name Index for Western Australia. Welshpool, Western Australia: Western Australian Museum, 2020. https://www.dlgsc.wa.gov.au/docs/default-source/aboriginal-history/norman-tindale-collection/norman-tindale-collection.pdf?sfvrsn=f38f281b_5.

Araluen, Evelyn. “Stuff People Get Wrong About Aboriginal History: A Thread.” Australian Critical Race and Whiteness Studies Association, 31 January 2019. https://acrawsa.org.au/2019/01/31/stuff-people-get-wrong-about-aboriginal-history-a-thread/.

Babadzan, Alain. “Anthropology, Nationalism and ‘the Invention of Tradition.’” Anthropological Forum 10.2 (2000): 131–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222937600770101.

Baird, Alex. “Iwi Calls Moriori ‘conquered and Subjugated’ in Modern-Day Land Battle.” Newshub, 27 December 2018, § NZ. https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2018/12/taranaki-iwi-fights-to-keep-moriori-land-it-invaded.html.

Ballard, Chris. “Strange Alliance: Pygmies in the Colonial Imaginary.” World Archaeology 38.1 (2006): 133–51. https://doi.org/10.1080/00438240500510155.

Bangura, Abdul Karim. Pan-Africanism: An Exploration of Afro-Asian Connections, 2012.

Belgrave, Michael. Historical Frictions: Maori Claims and Reinvented Histories. Auckland University Press, 2013.

Belich, James. Making Peoples: A History of the New Zealanders from Polynesian Settlement to the End of the Nineteenth Century. University of Hawaii Press, 2002.

Bellwood, Peter, and Dizon Eusebio. “Austronesian Cultural Origins: Out of Taiwan, via the Batanes Islands, and Onwards to Western Polynesia.” Past Human Migrations in East Asia: Matching Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. Edited by Alicia Sanchez-Mazas. London: Routledge, 2008.

Birdsell, Joseph B. “Preliminary Data on the Trihybrid Origin of the Australian Aborigines.” ARCO Archaeology and Physical Anthropology in Oceania 2.2 (1967): 100–155.

Blank, Jacinta. “Imagining Moriori: A History of Ideas of a People in the Twentieth Century.” University of Canterbury, 2007. https://ir.canterbury.ac.nz/bitstream/handle/10092/960/thesis_fulltext.pdf?sequence=1.

Blust, Robert. “Terror from the Sky: Unconventional Linguistic Clues to the Negrito Past” (n.d.): 18.

Boast, Richard. Maori Land Law. Butterworths, 1999.

Boast, Richard P. “A Report to the Waitangi Tribunal” 1 (1997): 173.

Bonwick, James. Daily Life and Origin of the Tasmanians. S. Low, Son, & Marston, 1870.

Brett, André. “‘The Miserable Remnant of This Ill-Used People’: Colonial Genocide and the Moriori of New Zealand’s Chatham Islands.” Journal of Genocide Research 17.2 (2015): 133–52. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623528.2015.1027073.

Caroline, Gluck. “Taiwan Aborigines Keep Rituals Alive.” BBC News, 7 December 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/6217502.stm.

Chen, Lan-Rong, Jean Alain Trejaut, Ying-Hui Lai, Zong-Sian Chen, Jin-Yuan Huang, Marie Lin, and Jun-Hun Loo. “Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphisms of the Saisiyat Indigenous Group of Taiwan, Search for a Negrito Signature.” EJBMR (2019): 12–18. https://doi.org/10.33805/2690-2613.103.

Chen, Shu-Juo. How Han Are Taiwanese Han?: Genetic Inference of Plains Indigenous Ancestry Among Taiwanese Han and Its Implications for Taiwan Identity. Stanford University, 2008.

Chen, 陳嘉霖 Chia-lin. “Separating ‘Indigenous Peoples’ from ‘Aborigines’ – Taipei Times.” Translated by Eddy Chang. Taipei Times, 23 March 2021, § Editorials.

Cheung, Han. “Taiwan in Time: The Ceremony That Endured the Times – Taipei Times,” 22 November 2020. https://taipeitimes.com/News/feat/archives/2020/11/22/2003747357.

Child-Dennis, David. “Home Invasion: Wrecking Rekohu – NZ’s Infamous Founding History (Part IV).” Elocal Magazine, February 2020.

Clayworth, Peter. “‘An Indolent and Chilly Folk’: The Development of the Idea of the ‘Moriori Myth.’” University of Otago, 2010.

Coleman, Claire. “Debunking: ‘Aborigines Took This Place from the Pygmies.’” IndigenousX, 31 January 2019. https://indigenousx.com.au/debunking-aborigines-took-this-place-from-the-pygmies/.

Collins, David. Kamo v The Minister of Conservation {2018} NZHC 1983 {6 August 2018}, High Court of New Zealand Wellington Registry 2018. https://forms.justice.govt.nz/search/Documents/pdf/jdo/92/alfresco/service/api/node/content/workspace/SpacesStore/8c1c5644-a0c7-4fec-b301-c112204bc6cc/8c1c5644-a0c7-4fec-b301-c112204bc6cc.pdf.

Connors, Libby. “Women, Children and Violence in Aboriginal Law: Some Perspectives From the Southeast Queensland Frontier.” Past Law, Present Histories. Edited by Diane Kirkby. ANU Press, 2012. https://doi.org/10.22459/PLPH.09.2012.07, http://press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/p200721/pdf/ch071.pdf.

Danver, Steven L. “Moriori.” Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues. Routledge, 2015.

Davidson, Iain. “FactCheck: Might There Have Been People in Australia Prior to Aboriginal People?” SBS News, 30 June 2015. https://www.sbs.com.au/news/factcheck-might-there-have-been-people-in-australia-prior-to-aboriginal-people.

Day, Caroline. “Rock Art Clarifies Demise of Pre-Aboriginal Culture.” Futurity, 2 January 2013. https://www.futurity.org/rock-art-clarifies-demise-of-pre-aboriginal-culture/.

Devere, Heather, Kelli Te Maihāroa, and John P. Synott. Peacebuilding and the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Experiences and Strategies for the 21st Century. Springer, 2016.

Dortch, Joe, and Michael Westaway. “Who We Should Recognise as First Australians in the Constitution.” The Conversation, 13 March 2015. http://theconversation.com/who-we-should-recognise-as-first-australians-in-the-constitution-38714.

Dunlop, Māni. “Hopes That Crown Settlement Will Dispel Moriori Myths.” Radio New Zealand, 13 August 2019. https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/te-manu-korihi/396606/hopes-that-crown-settlement-will-dispel-moriori-myths.

Ferrell, Raleigh. “‘Negrito’ Ritual and Traditions of Small People on Taiwan.” Folk Religion and the Worldview in the Southwestern Pacific: Papers Submitted to a Symposium, the Eleventh Pacific Science Congress Held in August-September 1966. Edited by Nobuhiro Matsumoto and Tōichi Mabuchi. China: Keio Institute of Cultural and Linguistic Studies, Keio University, 1968.

Flower, William Henry. “The Pygmy Races of Men.” The Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 18 (1889): 73.

Gauss, Aaron Valdis. “Villains of Formosan Aboriginal Mythology.” Intergrams 20.1 (2020): 29.

Glauert, Rik. “What You Didn’t Know about the World’s First Non-Binary Minister.” Gay Star News, 29 November 2018. https://www.gaystarnews.com/article/what-you-didnt-know-about-the-worlds-first-non-binary-minister/.

Grounds, Shoshanna, and Anne Ross. “Constant Resurrection: The Trihybrid Model and the Politicisation of Australian Archaeology.” Australian Archaeology 70.1 (2010): 55–67. https://doi.org/10.1080/03122417.2010.11681911.

Hideo, SASAGAWA. “Post/Colonial Discourses on the Cambodian Court Dance.” Southeast Asian Studies 42.2 (2006): 24.

Ho, Tʻing-jui. “A Comparative Study of Myths and Legends of Formosan Aborigines.” Indiana University, 1967.

———. A Comparative Study of Myths and Legends of Formosan Aborigines. Vol. 1. Indiana University., 1967.

Hobsbawm, E. J, and T. O Ranger. The Invention of Tradition. Cant Classics. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2019.

Howe, K.R. “1840s–Early 20th Century: Māori Tradition and the Great Fleet.” Page 3 in Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage Te Manatu Taonga, 2005. https://teara.govt.nz/en/ideas-about-maori-origins/page-3.

Hung, Hsiao-chun, Hirofumi Matsumura, Lan Cuong Nguyen, Tsunehiko Hanihara, Shih-Chiang Huang, and Mike T. Carson. “Negritos in Taiwan and the Wider Prehistory of Southeast Asia: New Discovery from the Xiaoma Caves.” World Archaeology 54.2 (2022): 207–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.2022.2121315.

———. “Negritos in Taiwan and the Wider Prehistory of Southeast Asia: New Discovery from the Xiaoma Caves.” World Archaeology 54.2 (2022): 207–28. https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.2022.2121315.

Hung 洪曉純, Hsiao-Chun. “Austronesian Diaspora: A New Perspective.” The Formation and Dispersal of Early Austronesian-Speaking Populations: New Evidnce from Taiwan, the Philippines, and the Marianas of Western Micronesia. Edited by Bagyo Prasetyo, Titi Surti Nastiti, and Truman Simanjuntak. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Gadjah Mada University Press, 2016.

Hunt, Mia. “View Section: 2019-11-01 Interview with Mia Hunt :” SayIt, 1 November 2019. https://sayit.pdis.nat.gov.tw.

Jennings, Ralph. “‘Negritos’ Celebrated as Early Taiwan Settlers.” Reuters, 17 November 2008. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-taiwan-negritos-idINTRE4AG16W20081117.

Jinam, Timothy A., Lih-Chun Hong, Maude E. Phipps, Mark Stoneking, Mahmood Ameen, Juli Edo, HUGO Pan-Asian SNP Consortium, and Naruya Saitou. “Evolutionary History of Continental Southeast Asians: ‘Early Train’ Hypothesis Based on Genetic Analysis of Mitochondrial and Autosomal DNA Data.” Molecular Biology and Evolution 29.11 (2012): 3513–27. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/mss169.

Kaiser, Timothy. “Archaeology and Ideology in Southeast Europe.” Pages 99–119 in Nationalism, Politics and the Practice of Archaeology. Edited by Clare Fawcett and Philip L. Kohl. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558214.007, https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/nationalism-politics-and-the-practice-of-archaeology/archaeology-and-ideology-in-southeast-europe/4D5B819D73158DA62000CB9EEB5418B4.

King, Michael. Moriori: A People Rediscovered. Penguin Random House New Zealand Limited, 2017.

———. “Moriori, a Pride Reborn.” New Zealand Geographic, n.d. https://www.nzgeo.com/stories/moriori-a-pride-reborn/.

Ko, Albert Min-Shan, Chung-Yu Chen, Qiaomei Fu, Frederick Delfin, Mingkun Li, Hung-Lin Chiu, Mark Stoneking, and Ying-Chin Ko. “Early Austronesians: Into and Out Of Taiwan.” The American Journal of Human Genetics 94.3 (2014): 426–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.02.003.

Latham, Robert Gordon. Opuscula: Essays, Chiefly Philological and Ethnographical. Williams & Norgate, 1860.

Lentz, Carola. “‘They Must Be Dagaba First and Any Other Thing Second ….’” African Studies 53.2 (1994): 57–91. https://doi.org/10.1080/00020189408707802.

Leyonhjelm, David. “ParlInfo – BILLS : Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples Recognition (Sunset Extension) Bill 2015 : Second Reading,” 5 March 2015. https://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/search/display/display.w3p;query=Id:%22chamber/hansards/0e04f51c-90a0-44db-b9b2-2bbc9d548cae/0077%22.

Li, Paul Jen-kuei. “Time Perspective of Formosan Aborigines.” Past Human Migrations in East Asia: Matching Archaeology, Linguistics and Genetics. Edited by Alicia Sanchez-Mazas. London: Routledge, 2008.

Lin, Hen Li. “The Songs of the ‘Pas-Taai.’” 中央硏究院民族學硏究所集刊 Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica 2 (1956): 31–107.

Mabuchi, Toichi. “Tales Concerning the Origin of Grains in the Insular Areas of Eastern and Southeastern Asia.” Asian Folklore Studies 23.1 (1964): 1. https://doi.org/10.2307/1177638.

Martin, Steven. “Ethnohistorical Perspectives among the Bunun: A Case Study of Laipunuk, Taiwan [台灣原住民之民族史觀 : 以布農族內本鹿為例].” National Chengchi University, 2006.

Mathew, John. Eaglehawk and Crow a Study of the Australian Aborigines Including an Inquiry into Their Origin and a Survey of Australian Languages. Melbourne, Mullen and Slade, 1899.

McGregor, Russell. “Making the Rainforest Aboriginal: Tindale and Birdsell’s Foray into Deep Time.” Memoirs of the Queensland Museum – Culture 10 (2016): 9–21.

McNiven, Ian J. “The Bradshaw Debate: Lessons Learned From Critiquing Colonialist Interpretations of Gwion Gwion Rock Paintings of The Kimberley, Western Australia.” Australian Archaeology 72.1 (2011): 35–44. https://doi.org/10.1080/03122417.2011.11690529.

McNiven, Ian J., and Lynette Russell. Appropriated Pasts: Indigenous Peoples and the Colonial Culture of Archaeology. Rowman Altamira, 2005.

Meyer, A. B. “Are There Negritos in Celebes?” Nature 39.993 (1888): art. 993, pp. 30–30. https://doi.org/10.1038/039030c0.

Mills, Keri. “The Moriori Myth and Why It’s Still with Us.” The Spinoff, 3 August 2018. https://thespinoff.co.nz/atea/03-08-2018/the-moriori-myth-and-why-its-still-with-us/.

Molteni, Megan. “Taiwan’s Digital Minister Knows How to Crush Covid-19: Trust.” Wired, 30 September 2020. https://www.wired.com/story/wired25-day3-audrey-tang-taiwan/.

Mutton, Karen. Scattered Skeletons in Our Closet. SCB Distributors, 2011.

Nabben, Kelsie. “Hacking the Pandemic: How Taiwan’s Digital Democracy Holds COVID-19 at Bay.” The Conversation, 11 September 2020. http://theconversation.com/hacking-the-pandemic-how-taiwans-digital-democracy-holds-covid-19-at-bay-145023.

Nandini Bhattacharya-Panda. Appropriation and Invention of Tradition: The East India Company and Hindu Law in Early Colonial Bengal. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Nationalist, Aussie. “The History of Australian Pygmies.” Aussie Nationalist Blog, 26 April 2018. https://aussienationalistblog.com/2018/04/26/a-past-existence-of-australian-pygmies/.

Ndjio, Basile. “POST-COLONIAL HISTORIES OF SEXUALITY: THE POLITICAL INVENTION OF A LIBIDINAL AFRICAN STRAIGHT.” Africa 82.4 (2012): 609–31. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0001972012000526.

Orwell, George. 1984. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1949.

Pietrusewsky, Michael, and Ching-fang Chang. “Taiwan Aboriginals and Peoples of the Pacific-Asia Region: Multivariate Craniometric Comparisons.” Anthropological Science 111.3 (2003): 293–332. https://doi.org/10.1537/ase.111.293.

Piper, Andrew. “New Zealand Colonial Propaganda: The Use of Cannibalism, Enslavement, Genocide and Myth to Legitimise Colonial Conquest.” Australian Folklore 27 (2012): 23.

Quartly, Jules. “In Honor of the Little Black People.” Taipei Times, 27 November 2004. https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/feat/archives/2004/11/27/2003212815.

———. “Looking after the Little People – Taipei Times.” Taipei Times, 5 December 2004, § Features.

Read, Peter, Rob Paton, Jennifer Clarke, Gordon Briscoe, Ann Curthoys, Brian Egloff, Geoff Gray, Niel Gunson, Luise Hercus, et al. “Aboriginal History Incorporated.” Aboriginal History 29 (2005): 188.

Reid, Lawrence A. “Historical Linguistics and Philippine Hunter-Gatherers.” Pages 231–61 in The Language of Hunter-Gatherers. Edited by Patrick McConvell, Richard A. Rhodes, and Tom Güldemann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781139026208.011, https://www.cambridge.org/core/books/language-of-huntergatherers/historical-linguistics-and-philippine-huntergatherers/6CE25EAFC21272EA76B68CF7A6B16D5B.

Robertson, David. The Republic Of China Yearbook 1996. Taylor & Francis, 1996.

Roy, Eleanor Ainge. “After More than 150 Years, New Zealand Recognises ‘extinct’ Moriori People.” The Guardian, 14 February 2020. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/feb/14/after-more-than-150-years-new-zealand-recognises-extinct-moriori-people.

Rubinstein, Murray A. Taiwan: A New History: A New History. Routledge, 2015.

Rule, Ted. “The Enigma of the Australian Pygmies – Quadrant Online.” Quadrant, 1 December 2010. https://quadrant.org.au/magazine/2010/12/the-enigma-of-the-australian-pygmies/.

Rutter, Owen. Through Formosa, an Account of Japan’s Island Colony, by Owen Rutter .. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1923. http://catalogue.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/cb31272240k.

Scott, Simon. “The State and the Native: Negotiating a New Nation in Taiwan.” Calcutta, India: University of Calcutta, 2004.

———. “The State and the Native: Negotiating a New Nation in Taiwan.” Bulletin of the International Committee on Urgent Anthropological and Ethnological Research 44 (2005).

Scranton, Laird. Decoding Maori Cosmology: The Ancient Origins of New Zealand’s Indigenous Culture, 2018.

Sentance, Nathan mudyi. “Dismantling the Australian Pygmy People Myth.” The Australian Museum, 27 April 2020. australian.museum/learn/first-nations/debunking-australian-pygmy-people-myth/.

Shand, Alexander. “The Moriori People Of The Chatham Islands: Their Traditions And History.” Journal of the Polynesian Society 3.2 (1894): 76–92.

Smith, Stephenson Percy. The Lore of the Whare-Wananga: Or Teachings of the Maori College on Religion, Cosmogony and History, Part 1-2. New Plymouth: Polynesian Society, 1913.

Solomon, Maui. “Moriori: Still Setting the Record Straight.” E-Tangata, 14 December 2019. https://e-tangata.co.nz/reflections/moriori-still-setting-the-record-straight/.

Stainton, Michael. “The Politics of Taiwan Aboriginal Origins.” Taiwan: A New History. Edited by Murray A. Rubinstein. M.E. Sharpe, 2007.

Stein, Britta. “History of Archaeology in Japan.” Pages 1–17 in Encyclopedia of Global Archaeology. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_3370-1, http://link.springer.com/10.1007/978-3-319-51726-1_3370-1.

Tang, Audrey. “Runtime Typecasting.” 鳳, 25 December 2005. https://pugs.blogs.com/audrey/2005/12/runtime_typecas.html.

Turek, Jan. “Archaeo-Propaganda: The History of Political Engagement in Archaeology in Central Europe.” Archaeologies 14 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11759-018-9340-3.

Turner, Phyllis. “Thesis Submitted for the Degree of Master of Science.” University of Adelaide, 2006.

Westaway, Michael, and Peter Hiscock. “The Extinction of Rigour: A Comment on ‘The Extinction of the Australian Pygmies’ by Keith Windschuttle and Tim Gillin.” Aboriginal History 29 (2005): 7.

Windschuttle, Keith, and Tim Gillin. “The Extinction of the Australian Pygmies – Quadrant Online.” Quadrant Online (2002). https://quadrant.org.au/opinion/history-wars/2002/06/the-extinction-of-the-australian-pygmies/.

Witzel, Michael. “PanGaeanFloodmyths” (n.d.): 21.

許倬雲, and Cho-yun Hsu. China: A New Cultural History. Translated by Timothy D. Jr Baker and Michael S. Duke. Columbia University Press, 2012.

陳俊名, and 江志男. “別叫我「先生」! 電腦怪傑唐宗漢變性 改名唐鳳.” Ettoday, 8 February 2006. http://ettoday.com/2006/02/08/327-1902964.htm.

“- Aboriginal History Journal: Volume 42 – ANU.” The Australian National University, n.d. https://press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/n4634/html/article02.xhtml?referer=&page=8.

“- Aboriginal History Journal: Volume 42 – ANU.” The Australian National University, n.d. https://press-files.anu.edu.au/downloads/press/n4634/html/article02.xhtml?referer=&page=8.

“Moriori Revival.” Stuff, 31 January 2009. https://www.stuff.co.nz/the-press/christchurch-life/mainlander/497758/Moriori-revival.

Republic of China Yearbook. Kwang Hwa Publishing Company, 2002.

Republic of China Yearbook 1993. Government Information Office, 1993.

“Sydney Line,” 15 February 2004. https://web.archive.org/web/20040215000812/http://www.sydneyline.com/Pygmies%20Extinction.htm.

“The Ethnology of the Australian Blacks.” Australasian Anthropological Journal 1.2 (1896). https://nla.gov.au/nla.obj-568376566.

“The Little People of Kuranda.” Ancestortrilogy, 25 July 2015. https://ancestortrilogy.wordpress.com/2015/07/25/the-little-people-of-kuranda/.

中央硏究院民族學硏究所集刊. 中央硏究院民族學硏究所, 1986.

“中央硏究院民族學硏究所集刊  Bulletin of the Institute of Ethnology, Academia Sinica” 60 (1986).

“臺灣神祕的矮人傳說 | Taiwan’s Mysterious Dwarf Legend.” 史前館電子報  | Prehistoric Museum Newsletter, 15 February 2023. https://beta.nmp.gov.tw/enews/no485/page_02.html.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *